Green is the original, natural (no land-fill) island of Manhattan.
Brown is the land-fill as shown on the 1865 Vielé map. (I'm not altogether certain that all the blocks shown on Vielé's map in the land-fill area were real rather than prospective.)
Blue is the Hudson River as of Vielé's map of 1865.
The heavy irregular line to the left is the current, 2010, shoreline with piers.
The street plan is modified from a current tax block map.
The original Tenth Avenue, as planned in 1807, is the deeper yellow line running north from 23rd street.
The subsequent extension of Tenth Avenue south to Horatio Street is indicated by the lighter yellow line.
(The initial extension was to West Street, between what is now Little West 12th Street and Gansevoort Street, probably by 1836, possibly already by 1831; I am not sure when the further extension down not quite to Horatio Street took place — before or after the erection or the demolition of the elevated West Side Highway?)
The yellow dots from Horatio Street to Jane Street indicate the apparent (but not official) extension of Tenth Avenue as experienced by a pedestrian.
Pictures and discussion of Tenth Avenue below 14th Street coming soon!